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Climate Change: Statement of Dr. William Happer before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee

Posted by pwl on February 25, 2009


Statement of William Happer Cyrus Fogg Brackett Professor of Physics Princeton University

Before the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Senator Barbara Boxer, Chair

February 25, 2009

Madam Chairman and members, thank you for the opportunity to appear before the Committee on Environment and Public Works to testify on Climate Change. My name is William Happer, and I am the Cyrus Fogg Bracket Professor of Physics at Princeton University. I am not a climatologist, but I don’t think any of the other witnesses are either. I do work in the related field of atomic, molecular and optical physics. I have spent my professional life studying the interactions of visible and infrared radiation with gases – one of the main physical phenomena behind the greenhouse effect. I have published over 200 papers in peer reviewed scientific journals. I am a member of a number of professional organizations, including the American Physical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. I have done extensive consulting work for the US Government and Industry. I also served as the Director of Energy Research at the Department of Energy (DOE) from 1990 to 1993, where I supervised all of DOE’s work on climate change. I have come here today as a concerned citizen to express my personal views, and those of many like me, about US climate-change policy. These are not official views of my main employer, Princeton University, nor of any other organization with which I am associated.

Let me state clearly where I probably agree with the other witnesses. We have been in a period of global warming over the past 200 years, but there have been several periods, like the last ten years, when the warming has ceased, and there have even been periods of substantial cooling, as from 1940 to 1970. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased from about 280 to 380 parts per million over past 100 years. The combustion of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, has contributed to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. And finally, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere will cause the earth’s surface to warm. The key question is: will the net effect of the warming, and any other effects of the CO2, be good or bad for humanity?

I believe that the increase of CO2 is not a cause for alarm and will be good for mankind. I predict that future historians will look back on this period much as we now view the period just before the passage of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution to prohibit “the manufacturing, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors.” At the time, the 18th amendment seemed to be exactly the right thing to do – who wanted to be in league with demon rum? It was the 1917 version of saving the planet. More than half the states enacted prohibition laws before the 18th amendment was ratified. Only one state, Rhode Island, voted against the 18th amendment. Two states, Illinois and Indiana, never got around to voting and all the rest voted for it. There were many thoughtful people, including a majority of Rhode Islanders, who thought that prohibition might do more harm than good. But they were completely outmatched by the temperance movement, whose motives and methods had much in common with the movement to stop climate change. Deeply sincere people thought they were saving humanity from the evils of alcohol, just as many people now sincerely think they are saving humanity from the evils of CO2. Prohibition was a mistake, and our country has probably still not fully recovered from the damage it did. Institutions like organized crime got their start in that era. Drastic limitations on CO2 are likely to damage our country in analogous ways.

But what about the frightening consequences of increasing levels of CO2 that we keep hearing about? In a word, they are wildly exaggerated, just as the purported benefits of prohibition were wildly exaggerated. Let me turn now to the science and try to explain why I and many scientists like me are not alarmed by increasing levels of CO2.

The earth’s climate really is strongly affected by the greenhouse effect, although the physics is not the same as that which makes real, glassed-in greenhouses work. Without greenhouse warming, the earth would be much too cold to sustain its current abundance of life. However, at least 90% of greenhouse warming is due to water vapor and clouds. Carbon dioxide is a bit player. There is little argument in the scientific community that a direct effect of doubling the CO2 concentration will be a small increase of the earth’s temperature — on the order of one degree. Additional increments of CO2 will cause relatively less direct warming because we already have so much CO2 in the atmosphere that it has blocked most of the infrared radiation that it can. It is like putting an additional ski hat on your head when you already have a nice warm one below it, but your are only wearing a windbreaker. To really get warmer, you need to add a warmer jacket. The IPCC thinks that this extra jacket is water vapor and clouds.

Since most of the greenhouse effect for the earth is due to water vapor and clouds, added CO2 must substantially increase water’s contribution to lead to the frightening scenarios that are bandied about. The buzz word here is that there is “positive feedback.” With each passing year, experimental observations further undermine the claim of a large positive feedback from water. In fact, observations suggest that the feedback is close to zero and may even be negative. That is, water vapor and clouds may actually diminish the already small global warming expected from CO2, not amplify it. The evidence here comes from satellite measurements of infrared radiation escaping from the earth into outer space, from measurements of sunlight reflected from clouds and from measurements of the temperature the earth’s surface or of the troposphere, the roughly 10 km thick layer of the atmosphere above the earth’s surface that is filled with churning air and clouds, heated from below at the earth’s surface, and cooled at the top by radiation into space.

But the climate is warming and CO2 is increasing. Doesn’t this prove that CO2 is causing global warming through the greenhouse effect? No, the current warming period began about 1800 at the end of the little ice age, long before there was an appreciable increase of CO2. There have been similar and even larger warmings several times in the 10,000 years since the end of the last ice age. These earlier warmings clearly had nothing to do with the combustion of fossil fuels. The current warming also seems to be due mostly to natural causes, not to increasing levels of carbon dioxide. Over the past ten years there has been no global warming, and in fact a slight cooling. This is not at all what was predicted by the IPCC models.

The climate has changed many times in the past with no help by mankind. Recall that the Romans grew grapes in Britain around the year 100, and Viking settlers prospered on small farms in Greenland for several centuries during the Medieval Climate Optimum around 1100. People have had an urge to control the climate throughout history so I suppose it is no surprise that we are at it again today. For example, in June of 1644, the Bishop of Geneva led a flock of believers to the face of a glacier that was advancing “by over a musket shot” every day. The glacier would soon destroy a village. The Bishop and his flock prayed over the glacier, and it is said to have stopped. The poor Vikings had long since abandoned Greenland where the advancing glaciers and cooling climate proved much less susceptible to prayer. Sometimes the obsession for control of the climate got a bit out of hand, as in the Aztec state, where the local scientific/religious establishment of the year 1500 had long since announced that the debate was over and that at least 20,000 human sacrifices a year were needed to keep the sun moving, the rain falling, and to stop climate change. The widespread dissatisfaction of the people who were unfortunate enough to be the source of these sacrifices played an important part in the success of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.

The existence of climate variability in the past has long been an embarrassment to those who claim that all climate change is due to man and that man can control it. When I was a schoolboy, my textbooks on earth science showed a prominent “medieval warm period” at the time the Vikings settled Greenland, followed by a vicious “little ice age” that drove them out. So I was very surprised when I first saw the celebrated “hockey stick curve,” in the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. I could hardly believe my eyes. Both the little ice age and the Medieval Warm Period were gone, and the newly revised temperature of the world since the year 1000 had suddenly become absolutely flat until the last hundred years when it shot up like the blade on a hockey stick. This was far from an obscure detail, and the hockey stick was trumpeted around the world as evidence that the end was near. We now know that the hockey stick has nothing to do with reality but was the result of incorrect handling of proxy temperature records and incorrect statistical analysis. There really was a little ice age and there really was a medieval warm period that was as warm or warmer than today. I bring up the hockey stick as a particularly clear example that the IPCC summaries for policy makers are not dispassionate statements of the facts of climate change. It is a shame, because many of the IPCC chapters are quite good. The whole hockey-stick episode reminds me of the motto of Orwell’s Ministry of Information in the novel “1984:” “He who controls the present, controls the past. He who controls the past, controls the future.” The IPCC has made no serious attempt to model the natural variations of the earth’s temperature in the past. Whatever caused these large past variations, it was not due to people burning coal and oil. If you can’t model the past, where you know the answer pretty well, how can you model the future?

Many of us are aware that we are living in an ice age, where we have hundred- thousand-year intervals of big continental glaciers that cover much of the land area of the northern hemisphere, interspersed with relative short interglacial intervals like the one we are living in now. By looking at ice cores from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, one can estimate past temperatures and atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Al Gore likes to display graphs of temperature and CO2 concentrations over the past million years or so, showing that when CO2 rises, the temperature also rises. Doesn’t this prove that the temperature is driven by CO2? Absolutely not! If you look carefully at these records, you find that first the temperature goes up, and then the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere goes up. There is a delay between a temperature increase and a CO2 increase of about 800 years. This casts serious doubt on CO2 as a climate driver because of the fundamental concept of causality. A cause must precede its effect. For example, I hear my furnace go on in the morning about six o’clock, and by about 7 o’clock, I notice that my house is now so warm that I have too many covers on my bed. It is time to get up. It would never occur to me to assume that the furnace started burning gas at 6 o’clock because the house got warm at 7 o’clock. Sure, temperature and gas burning are correlated, just like temperature and atmospheric levels of CO2. But the thing that changes first is the cause. In the case of the ice cores, the cause of increased CO2 is almost certainly the warming of the oceans. The oceans release dissolved CO2 when they warm up, just like a glass of beer rapidly goes flat in a warm room. If not CO2, then what really causes the warming at the end of the cold periods of ice ages? A great question and one of the reasons I strongly support research in climate.

I keep hearing about the “pollutant CO2,” or about “poisoning the atmosphere” with CO2, or about minimizing our “carbon footprint.” This brings to mind another Orwellian pronouncement that is worth pondering: “But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.” CO2 is not a pollutant and it is not a poison and we should not corrupt the English language by depriving “pollutant” and “poison” of their original meaning. Our exhaled breath contains about 4% CO2. That is 40,000 parts per million, or about 100 times the current atmospheric concentration. CO2 is absolutely essential for life on earth. Commercial greenhouse operators often use CO2 as a fertilizer to improve the health and growth rate of their plants. Plants, and our own primate ancestors evolved when the levels of atmospheric CO2 were about 1000 ppm, a level that we will probably not reach by burning fossil fuels, and far above our current level of about 380 ppm. We try to keep CO2 levels in our US Navy submarines no higher than 8,000 parts per million, about 20 time current atmospheric levels. Few adverse effects are observed at even higher levels.

We are all aware that “the green revolution” has increased crop yields around the world. Part of this wonderful development is due to improved crop varieties, better use of mineral fertilizers, herbicides, etc. But no small part of the yield improvement has come from increased atmospheric levels of CO2. Plants photosynthesize more carbohydrates when they have more CO2. Plants are also more drought-tolerant with more CO2, because they need not “inhale” as much air to get the CO2 needed for photosynthesis. At the same time, the plants need not “exhale” as much water vapor when they are using air enriched in CO2. Plants decrease the number of stomata or air pores on their leaf surfaces in response to increasing atmospheric levels of CO2. They are adapted to changing CO2 levels and they prefer higher levels than those we have at present. If we really were to decrease our current level of CO2 of around 400 ppm to the 270 ppm that prevailed a few hundred years ago, we would lose some of the benefits of the green revolution. Crop yields will continue to increase as CO2 levels go up, since we are far from the optimum levels for plant growth. Commercial greenhouse operators are advised to add enough CO2 to maintain about 1000 ppm around their plants. Indeed, economic studies like those of Dr. Robert Mendelsohn at Yale University project that moderate warming is an overall benefit to mankind because of higher agricultural yields and many other reasons.

I remember being forced to read Voltaire’s novel, Candide, when I was young. You recall that Dr. Pangloss repeatedly assured young Candide that he was living in “the best of all possible worlds,” presumably also with the best of all CO2 concentrations. That we are (or were) living at the best of all CO2 concentrations seems to be a tacit assumption of the IPCC executive summaries for policy makers. Enormous effort and imagination have gone into showing that increasing concentrations of CO2 will be catastrophic, cities will be flooded by sea-level rises that are ten or more times bigger than even IPCC predicts, there will be mass extinctions of species, billions of people will die, tipping points will render the planet a desert. A few months ago I read that global warming will soon bring on a devastating epidemic of kidney stones. If you write down all the ills attributed to global warming you fill up a very thick book.

Much is made about tropical diseases like malaria and yellow fever devastating the populations of temperate climates because of the burning of fossil fuels and the subsequent warming of the earth. Many people who actually work with tropical diseases, notably Dr. Paul Reiter, a specialist on tropical diseases, have pointed out how silly all of this is. Perhaps I can add a few bits of history to illustrate this point. One of the first military expenditures of the Continental Congress in 1775 was $300 to purchase quinine for the Continental Army and to mitigate the effects of malaria. The Continental Congress moved from the then Capital of the United States , Philadelphia, to my home town of Princeton, New Jersey, in the summer of 1783 for two reasons. The first was that the Congress had not yet paid many soldiers of the Revolutionary War their promised wages, and disgruntled veterans were wandering up and down the streets of Philadelphia. Secondly, there were outbreaks of malaria in cities as far north as Boston. The Congress knew you were less likely to catch malaria in Princeton than in Philadelphia. In 1793 there was not only malaria, but a horrendous outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelphia. Many thousands of people died in a city with a population of about 50,000. And I should point out that Philadelphia was a bit cooler then than now, since the little ice age was just coming to an end. Controlling tropical diseases and many other diseases has little to do with temperature, and everything to do with curtailing the factors that cause the spread – notably mosquitoes in the case of malaria and yellow fever.

Many of the frightening scenarios about global warming come from large computer calculations, “general circulation models,” that try to mimic the behavior of the earth’s climate as more CO2 is added to the atmosphere. It is true that climate models use increasingly capable and increasingly expensive computers. But their predictions have not been very good. For example, none of them predicted the lack of warming that we have experienced during the past ten years. All the models assume the water feedback is positive, while satellite observations suggest that the feedback is zero or negative.

Modelers have been wrong before. One of the most famous modeling disputes involved the physicist William Thompson, later Lord Kelvin, and the naturalist Charles Darwin. Lord Kelvin was a great believer in models and differential equations. Charles Darwin was not particularly facile with mathematics, but he took observations very seriously. For evolution to produce the variety of living and fossil species that Darwin had observed, the earth needed to have spent hundreds of millions of years with conditions not very different from now. With his mathematical models, Kelvin rather pompously demonstrated that the earth must have been a hellish ball of molten rock only a few tens of millions of years ago, and that the sun could not have been shining for more than about 30 million years. Kelvin was actually modeling what he thought was global and solar cooling. I am sorry to say that a majority of his fellow physicists supported Kelvin. Poor Darwin removed any reference to the age of the earth in later editions of the “Origin of the Species.” But Darwin was right the first time, and Kelvin was wrong. Kelvin thought he knew everything but he did not know about the atomic nucleus, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, all of which invalidated his elegant modeling calculations.

This brings up the frequent assertion that there is a consensus behind the idea that there is an impending disaster from climate change, and that it may already be too late to avert this catastrophe, even if we stop burning fossil fuels now. We are told that only a few flat-earthers still have any doubt about the calamitous effects of continued CO2 emissions. There are a number of answers to this assertion.

First, what is correct in science is not determined by consensus but by experiment and observations. Historically, the consensus is often wrong, and I just mentioned the incorrect consensus of modelers about the age of the earth and the sun. During the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 in Philadelphia the medical consensus was that you could cure almost anything by bleeding the patient. Benjamin Rush, George Washington’s Surgeon General during the War of Independence, and a brave man, stayed in Philadelphia throughout the yellow fever epidemic. He worked tirelessly to save the stricken by bleeding them, the consensus treatment of the day. A few cautious observers noticed that you were more likely to survive the yellow fever without the services of the great man. But Dr. Rush had plenty of high level-friends and he was backed up by the self-evident consensus, so he went ahead with his ministrations. In summary, a consensus is often wrong.

Secondly, I do not think there is a consensus about an impending climate crisis. I personally certainly don’t believe we are facing a crisis unless we create one for ourselves, as Benjamin Rush did by bleeding his patients. Many others, wiser than I am, share my view. The number of those with the courage to speak out is growing. There may be an illusion of consensus. Like the temperance movement one hundred years ago the climate-catastrophe movement has enlisted the mass media, the leadership of scientific societies, the trustees of charitable foundations, and many other influential people to their cause. Just as editorials used to fulminate about the slippery path to hell behind the tavern door, hysterical op-ed’s lecture us today about the impending end of the planet and the need to stop climate change with bold political action. Many distinguished scientific journals now have editors who further the agenda of climate- change alarmism. Research papers with scientific findings contrary to the dogma of climate calamity are rejected by reviewers, many of whom fear that their research funding will be cut if any doubt is cast on the coming climate catastrophe. Speaking of the Romans, then invading Scotland in the year 83, the great Scottish chieftain Calgacus is quoted as saying “They make a desert and call it peace.” If you have the power to stifle dissent, you can indeed create the illusion of peace or consensus. The Romans have made impressive inroads into climate science. Certainly, it is a bit unnerving to read statements of Dr. James Hansen in the Congressional Record that climate skeptics are guilty of “high crimes against humanity and nature.”

Even elementary school teachers and writers of children’s books are enlisted to terrify our children and to promote the idea of impending climate doom. Having observed the education of many children, including my own, I am not sure how effective the effort will be. Many children seem to do just the opposite of what they are taught. Nevertheless, children should not be force-fed propaganda, masquerading as science. Many of you may know that in 2007 a British Court ruled that if Al Gore’s book, “An Inconvenient Truth,” was used in public schools, the children had to be told of eleven particularly troubling inaccuracies. You can easily find a list of the inaccuracies on the internet, but I will mention one. The court ruled that it was not possible to attribute hurricane Katrina to CO2. Indeed, had we taken a few of the many billions of dollars we have been spending on climate change research and propaganda and fixed the dykes and pumps around the New Orleans, most of the damage from Hurricane Katrina could have been avoided.

The sea level is indeed rising, just as it has for the past 20,000 years since the end of the last ice age. Fairly accurate measurements of sea level have been available since about 1800. These measurements show no sign of any acceleration. The rising sea level can be a serious local problem for heavily-populated, low-lying areas like New Orleans, where land subsidence compounds the problem. But to think that limiting CO2 emissions will stop sea level rise is a dangerous illusion. It is also possible that the warming seas around Antarctica will cause more snowfall over the continent and will counteract the sea-level rise. In any case, the rising sea level is a problem that needs quick local action for locations like New Orleans rather than slow action globally.

In closing, let me say again that we should provide adequate support to the many brilliant scientists, some at my own institution of Princeton University, who are trying to better understand the earth’s climate, now, in the past, and what it may be in the future. I regret that the climate-change issue has become confused with serious problems like secure energy supplies, protecting our environment, and figuring out where future generations will get energy supplies after we have burned all the fossil fuel we can find. We should not confuse these laudable goals with hysterics about carbon footprints. For example, when weighing pluses and minuses of the continued or increased use of coal, the negative issue should not be increased atmospheric CO2, which is probably good for mankind. We should focus on real issues like damage to the land and waterways by strip mining, inadequate remediation, hazards to miners, the release of real pollutants and poisons like mercury, other heavy metals, organic carcinogens, etc. Life is about making decisions and decisions are about trade-offs. The Congress can choose to promote investment in technology that addresses real problems and scientific research that will let us cope with real problems more efficiently. Or they can act on unreasonable fears and suppress energy use, economic growth and the benefits that come from the creation of national wealth.

William Happer Testimony to Senate Environment & Public Works Committee, February 25, 2009

Climate Change: Statement of Dr. William Happer before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee (PDF).


46 Responses to “Climate Change: Statement of Dr. William Happer before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee”

  1. ccpo said

    How do you take the rantings of such a person seriously? How can a supposed expert say things like the earth has warmed many times? Idiotically irrelevant. Or that CO2 is too small a portion to affect heat significantly? Equally idiotic. It shows he has no clue about climate science.

    This I can guarantee you: he has done zero research on this topic, despite his claims of having “supervised.” Note he doesn’t say he *did* any science.

    Damned fool.

  2. pwl said

    Well, he has more scientific credentials than you (I assume) and I (for sure). However, taking any scientist on simply their authority isn’t what science is about. Proof of what they say is needed.

    What he says seems reasonable and plausible. It also seems like much of what he says could be proven by experiments, or already has been. Certainly all of what he said needs to be vetted and he encouraged that in his concluding remarks when he says that more science is needed.

    How can you say that the Earth hasn’t warmed many times when no one argues that point?

    He explained how C02 impacts heat. I thought that part was clear.

    Thanks for your opinion. What is it worth? How can you prove your opinion?

    How would you go about proving AWG, falsifying AWG, proving what Dr William Happer said, or falsifying what Dr William Happer has said?

    We need proof as proofs or falsifications of hypotheses is what science is about. Opinions, beliefs and faith are often the most dangerous of ideas since they don’t need to be correlated with objective reality where we actually exist. Science gives us tools, some advanced, that can enable us to validate, prove, disprove, truify, falsify, test, refute, find the limits of, etc… and tell bogus opinions, beliefs and faith from what is actually real in objective reality, aka Nature.

  3. pwl said

    Actually ccpo, Dr William Happer does say that his research is directly relevant to climate science. He also pointed out that the so called climate science is really a “new” field but that it’s an interdisciplinary field that needs experts from many of the specialties of science. This isn’t unusual since that is a common team pattern in modern day technology and science endeavors.

  4. Paul M. said

    Ccpo, you haven’t made an argument on the merits, only against the man, and it’s a extremely weak argument at that. Name calling only damages your own credibility.

    Step back, calm down and try to read Professor Happer’s testimony without letting your emotions overwhelm you. Then, attempt to refute what he says with some solid evidence to the contrary, and come back here and let us know what you’ve found.

  5. pwl said

    I concur Paul M., not that consensus is needed, the proof is in the pudding.

    Very nice reply by the way Paul M. as it sums up the direction I’m setting here for raising the level of the discussion to be focus on evidence, proof and other elements of the scientific method and a commitment to the pursuit of excellence in science, science education and our way of interacting with people in our lives.

  6. Alan said

    From a quick perusal of this article there is one important omission, which strangely most people are failing to acknowledge, despite their massive size and affect on weather globally.

    These are the many events of polluted haze [smog] spread around the world causing weather mayhem. Comprised mostly of man-made aerosols, with some 75% coming from coal-fired burners. They have been identified to cause acid rain – hence corrosion; global dimming – the big, big worry; cooling of ocean waters; killing of CO2 absorbing plankton and birth defects in China.

    The size of these events a mind-boggling. The smog in the Indian Ocean in June 1999 was found to be 3kms thick in places and covering an area nearly the size of the USA.

    The big question is what can be done to reduce or preferably eliminate this worsening pollution? All the emphasis to combat global warming and its consequences has so far been aimed at reducing CO2, but the smogs appear to be more damaging and maybe they are the real culprit?

  7. CTYankee said

    C02 joke, Maunder Minimum, no joke.

  8. pwl said

    Thanks CTYankee for pointing this out. The Maunder Minimum is very interesting. I’ve added a post about it. Man this climate science field is so huge, so many buzz words, so much information, so much learning with so much vetting for mind poo. How the heck does one determine what is real with consequence and what isn’t? It’s mind boggling!

  9. Thomas T. S. Watson said

    Hi all
    Your comments are near the truth. I have established a positive connection between what we are acalling Climate Change, and that it was caused by our Sun’s Magnetiosphere reversal that occurred on 15th February 2001. This is a natural cyclic action that occurs approximately every eleven years. There was a similar cycle we experienced in 1989 when temperatures were high.
    I have associated this effect of magnetic reversal with the magnetic effects from our Earth with experience and altogether representing what we are calling CC. The CO2 element does not appear in any of these natural cycles and shows what the Earth is now experiencing a complete reversal of CC. The denominator is the atomic structrue of our own atmosphere and this alone generates the CC we now experience. I have completed my reviewed book entitled ‘Climate Change Explained by Magnetism’ will be released soon in Geelong, Victoria, Australia. tomw

  10. pwl said

    Thomas T. S. Watson,

    Where would one obtain the data that shows the “Sun’s Magnetiosphere reversal that occurred on 15th February 2001”?

    What do you mean when you say “the denominator is the atomic structrue of our own atmosphere”?

    Your book sounds interesting; please be sure to let us know more about it when it is available (or now if you wish).

  11. jbona said

    CCPO –

    I hope you are riding your bike to work

  12. GrudgeMonkey said

    A question like “How can you listen to those rantings?” begs its own question. If it’s rantings, one shouldn’t listen to it, but just asking the question doesn’t establish the fact. As many others have pointed out, the facts can be checked independently, and the personality of the person saying them isn’t important. It doesn’t prove much to say, “He doesn’t agree with me; therefore he’s an idiot.”

    I’ve also seen it mentioned that he’s a member of a foundation that receives money from Exxon. So what? Does that make him wrong? If they’re paying him to lie, where’s the lie? It’s another attempt to discredit the argument by discrediting the man. I don’t see anyone asking where Al Gore gets his money. It makes sense to me that companies and individuals will support the work of people they agree with. There isn’t something automatically unethical about that.

  13. John Doner said

    The putative claim that CO2 causes global warming is at best hypothetical: no laboratory experiment, or computer model, can possibly represent the complexity of earth physic exactly. However, the warmists run with this unproven hypothesis and base absolutely everything on it.

    Now for the factual evidence which destroys the hypothesis.

    1. As Dr. Happer pointed out, the variations in atmospheric CO2 have always followed, not preceded, the changes in Earth’s temperature. This is undisputable, using evidence extending back as much as 400 years.

    2. Do you know what a positive feedback system is? Have you ever been subjected to the very high volume squeal that occurs in an audio amplifier system when the mike gets too close to the speakers? The sound going from the speakers into the mike is amplified, producing a greater sound level into the mike, which is further amplified, etc.

    Well, if CO2 causes global warming, then once its level begins to rise, the planet should become warmer, releasing more CO2 from the oceans, causing yet more warming, etc. — a runaway effect.

    The many instances of planetary warming in the past, where CO2 rose after the warming, have clearly not resulted in this effect, or the warmists would not be here to apply for more government money.

    The planet itself is the one and only laboratory in which to test the CO2 hypothesis, and the hypothesis clearly failed the test.

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  16. pwl said

    Fanny, thanks.

    Don’t know what the Kmelon browser is. Maybe they need to fix their browser? I don’t control the html generated since it’s done by the web blog software, wordpress.

    Thanks again.

  17. peter brewster said

    A brave and great contribution to the issue. Truth and real science will win out. Dr Happer you are a marvellous American and a great man.

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    two. Make confident the installation process comes easily and the devices cheaply. Aspect of the charm with cellular internet solutions is the simplicity surrounding the installation process. It need to never be a trouble and, in most instances, you will need to only receive the equipment and have to download it. As for the hardware, appear for a offer in which the hardware arrives integrated. Paying a good offer of cash on the USB plug is unwise when most companies will give it no cost with a contract.

    3. Be certain to get an exact pace estimate. Figuring out how fast a connection will maintain clicking can be challenging. The greatest ranges of all suppliers are impressive, but believing they will be heading most of the time is ludicrous. Try out to get as near to an common speed as attainable, whilst ignoring the peak levels of a supplier. If your requirements rely on a specified level of speed at all occasions, don’t play all over with lesser figures.

    4. Discover out about the versatility with their contracts. Gaining locked into a poor contract is 1 of the greatest fears of the shopper as wireless world wide web reaches a new peak. When you are going via the routine and figuring out if a corporation is right for you, check out into their cancellation policies. As with cellular telephone contracts, most cancellations will almost certainly have a penalty and be prohibitive. Even so, most companies will prefer to remedy a customer’s issues prior to such measures are necessary.

    five. Get a exact figure for data limits and what amount of information is regular of each and every support. There are even now limitations in the community of cellular world-wide-web as opposed to residence lines, so be cautious about how substantially info you will be transferring on a regular foundation. The overage costs can be shocking. If you are looking at changing your residence connection wholly, do the math and plan wisely.

    If you’re like me, you don’t want to be with out a higher velocity World-wide-web connection when you leave house. Several mobile telephone businesses, these as Verizon, supply a 3G Net possibility that operates anyplace you have a cell signal.

    Verizon gives you quite a few approaches to connect your laptop computer, netbook or other Internet capable system to the Web. I will briefly describe the most common strategies of offering 3G World wide web.

    Verizon’s MiFi Transportable 3G Internet Hotspot:

    I have personally utilised the Verizon MiFi to present high pace 3G World-wide-web accessibility to my laptop computer and my wife’s netbook while I traveled. The MiFi is a portable wireless 3G World-wide-web router and can provide broadband World wide web support to up to five wireless World wide web capable gadgets. It is very small, about the dimensions of a 50 percent a deck of cards, and has a rechargeable battery. Wireless setup was simple and the MiFi performed flawlessly. The charge for the information program in 2010 was about $sixty for 5 Gigabytes of data per month.

    Verizon 3G Internet Smart Phones:

    You can use any of Verizon’s 3G smartphones to provide World wide web access to your laptop computer or potentially other wireless World wide web gadgets, dependent on the capabilities of your 3G smartphone. A number of of the latest smartphones have 3G cellular hotspot capabilities. Three preferred decisions are:

    ? Motorola Droid X? Samsung Fascinate? Palm Pre In addition

    I presently use the Palm Pre Plus due to the fact Verizon presented a no cost 3G mobile hotspot deal deal for as very long as I hold the cell phone. The other mobile hotspot capable phones change in what Verizon charges for the hotspot function.

    Most mobile broadband programs have a month-to-month data limit of five gigabytes or much less and have serious overage expenses. I have never ever arrive close to heading more than my bandwidth restrict. Nevertheless, if you do a lot of heavy downloading, you should watch your World wide web utilization closely.

    Even if your smartphone doesn’t have cellular hotspot capabilities, it can however be tethered via a USB cable to your laptop or netbook to give 3G World-wide-web access. If you’re in the marketplace for a new smartphone or have had your current phone strategy for a couple of years or additional, you might be able to get a single of the newest 3G Net supplier wise phones for subsequent to next to nothing. Verizon and most other mobile Net suppliers offer you big discount rates and rebates when you sign a new agreement.

    Pre-Compensated Calling Gains and dependability

    In accordance a survey carried out in the area of cellular VoIP, Asia has emerged as the quickest expanding telecommunication current market with yearly expansion charges in excess of 30% across the region.

    Each and every 7 out ten subscribers are employing prepaid mobile phones to make calls. Newly penetrated markets with very first time cellular people have demonstrated a beneficial raise in selection of pre-paid mobile end users. According to a survey conducted between the mobile cellular phone end users, 70% of the total mobile current market is prepaid users. This variety is anticipated to increase by a third by the mid of this ten years. Most subscribers in the Asia Pacific region choose prepaid services. Purpose is explanation adequate- The provider is quick, uncomplicated and affordable.

    Irrespective of no matter whether prepaid is your dominant market place section, one particular can’t deny that this is the fastest rising consumer base. At any time wondered, what is fueling this progress and how can this trajectory keep on? Let’s explore right here.

    Availability of adaptable ideas- Availability of flexi & continually changing ideas has accelerated the steady expansion of pre-paid cellular phone consumers. People are happy due to the fact they have no liability towards service providers and troubles like safety sum, crossing the credit restrict (if bill is not compensated in time) or indication up for a lengthy agreement doesn’t bother the user a lot now. Many thanks to flexi ideas and the competition they convey. For cellular people with poor or very poor credit score, prepaid phones are the greatest solution to go cellular with.

    Nationwide protection

    There are at minimum a few main explanations that you ought to know about prepaid cellular phone options. Initially, no credit test is demanded for these ideas 2nd, most programs will give you limitless nights & weekends, no cost calling on the identical network and 3rd, they have nationwide network coverage to other cell cellphone users. Now pre-compensated mobile cell phone users have liberty to roam about cities in the very same nation devoid of caring substantially for roaming fees in many places.

    Limitless speak time & Huge option of pre-paid cellular cards to invest in from

    With wide range of pre-compensated cards and availability of most adaptable plans due to competitiveness among provider providers to acquire just about every single pre-paid person, has benefited the person in quite a few a tactics. Most of the mobile service companies are these days supplying limitless area minutes on the exact network, unlimited extended distance minutes free on particular programs and or the mixture of the two.

    Totally free text messaging

    Lots of folks obtain text message a better way t link and acquiring back in touch. Dependent on the supplier you chose, you may perhaps get free of charge text messages, unlimited messaging or a mixture of equally.

    Free alerts

    A person can incredibly perfectly go for the pre-compensated cellular cell phone connection if a single demands time-to-time balance alerts. Now days, just about all company providers are providing the absolutely free SMS service alert for pre-compensated mobiles end users. The motive is incredibly uncomplicated- to persuade the users to recharge the discuss time of their cellular telephone as they can drain it whenever. Every single time you conclude an outgoing phone built from your mobile, you get a company alert on your cellular phone’s display that displays the present balance of your pre-compensated cellular card.

    As a matter of fact and as per pointers furnished by telecom regulatory authority, each pre-compensated card has a marked selling total price and fixed readily available chat time just after deduction of taxes (provider tax and other people). It is also straightforward to hold an eye on your expenditure as whatever you spend on your mobile phone’s budget, is pre-compensated and regulates it a bit.

    In advance of opting for a pre-paid mobile cellular phone approach, check out the following-

    -Who is the company supplier.-What are their services.-What are their options include.-What are the pricing alternatives obtainable.

    Properly, the course of action has also engulfed the other sectors as well. This contains broadband as very well. As a consequence, the prime major cellular broadband suppliers are coming with profitable discounts. Right after successfully changing the dial-up connections, they have been in the limelight for combating the sluggish connectivity. These companies always come up with lucrative strategies, which allure much more and more cellular lovers all around the community. Now, this is what helps make it uncomplicated for the mobile lovers to strike the most effective offer. Even so, there are couple of major suppliers these as Vodafone, Orange, O2, three cellular, Virgin and T-mobile, which are providing exclusive cellular mobile phone deals with lucrative mobile broadband offers. Now that is wherever it turns into vital as we enter into a cut throat opposition exactly where there are ample of cellular broadband providers.

    If we go by the class of these cellular connections, we locate that they are divided in accordance with the utilization. As there is mobile broadband, there is also dwelling broadband. Now that is wherever points are turning in favour for the consumers.

    Nonetheless, if a person is going for a broadband connection, he or she will need to keep a number of elements in brain. Though considering about the greatest broad band providers, he must pondered over the many mobile cell phone deal. In reality, he require to evaluate the common needs at the initial hand.

    As mobile lovers tend to imagine that the greatest supplier is the one particular that fulfill the requirement of its consumers, in today’s occasions, there has been tremendous energy to retain the rates substantially down. Now that is where an individual enjoys worthwhile mobile telephone specials as a outcome.

    As Online is flooded with quite a few web pages supplying providers, there are ample of broadband deals as a consequence. Then the other aspect is that there is no dearth of availability of on the web promotion, which has resulted in making the lives of people today considerably easier.As we are witnessing the development in the other sectors of technologies, there is no dearth of technological advancements going on at a speedy speed.

    The introduction of the world wide web has transformed the lives of lots of and a lot of persons are now going for the cellular broadband. Lots of corporations offer mobile broadband and it is therefore significant for the person to be careful when picking out them. There are a range of elements they need to take into consideration ahead of producing their choices.

    A single of the most critical is the value of the solutions, It is important that the people choose the business that can give them with companies that are really worth their income. It is as a result essential for the consumer to compare and contrast the different rates of different organizations so that they can make the finest option. It is also important that they check out for individuals organizations tat charge more or hidden fees. In addition, they can ask the business to checklist down the services that are below that cost so that they know what they are paying for.

    The protection of the supplier provider is also quite essential in selecting these corporations. They ought to have good and robust coverage not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas. Most of the firms that have a more substantial network normally have better web accessibility but the only issue is they have a lot of consumers, a factor that might affect the speed of the solutions.

    Quite a few of the companies place a limit on the sum of info users can download or upload and this is an critical factor to continue to keep in thoughts when considering of the speed of the provider. In case the end users will be downloading a lot of files then they ought to go for the suppliers who have the highest velocity while individuals who are applying the internet for essential elements like checking mail will need to go for reasonable speeds. The pace of the internet is determined by the reliability of the network and the consumers should also hold this in head. The choice of a business with minimal info network reliability will have no use since all other characteristics furnished will not be priceless to the consumer.

    The other most essential thing is the assistance of the provider. The consumers really should make certain that they have chosen a organization that has an great client company that will meet their needs at all instances.

    Pre-Paid Calling Added benefits and dependability

    In accordance a survey carried out in the area of mobile VoIP, Asia has emerged as the quickest developing telecommunication market with annual growth rates in excess of thirty% across the region.

    Every single seven out ten subscribers are working with prepaid mobile phones to make calls. Newly penetrated markets with to begin with time mobile consumers have demonstrated a good increase in range of pre-paid mobile users. According to a survey executed between the cellular telephone people, 70% of the complete cellular current market is prepaid users. This selection is anticipated to develop by a third by the mid of this ten years. Most subscribers in the Asia Pacific region prefer prepaid services. Cause is motive enough- The support is quick, straightforward and very affordable.

    Irrespective of no matter if prepaid is your dominant industry segment, a person cannot deny that this is the quickest rising customer base. Ever before wondered, what is fueling this growth and how can this trajectory keep on? Let’s uncover the following.

    Availability of flexible strategies- Availability of flexi & continually shifting programs has accelerated the constant development of pre-compensated mobile mobile phone customers. End users are joyful mainly because they have no liability towards support providers and troubles like safety total, crossing the credit score restrict (if bill is not paid in time) or indication up for a lengthy agreement doesn’t bother the user a lot now. Thanks to flexi options and the competitiveness they convey. For cellular users with terrible or bad credit score, prepaid phones are the greatest choice to go cellular with.

    Nationwide protection

    There are at least three main reasons that you ought to know about prepaid cell phone programs. Initial, no credit score look at is necessary for these options Second, most strategies will give you unlimited nights & weekends, free of charge calling on the similar network and third, they have nationwide network protection to other cell cellular phone people. Now pre-paid cellular telephone users have liberty to roam around cities in the identical nation without having caring very much for roaming charges in many locations.

    Unlimited speak time & Vast choice of pre-compensated mobile cards to get from

    With range of pre-compensated cards and availability of most adaptable programs because of to competition amid company providers to obtain just about every single pre-paid person, has benefited the person in numerous a tactics. Most of the mobile provider suppliers are right now supplying limitless regional minutes on the identical network, limitless very long distance minutes no cost on sure ideas and or the combination of each.

    Cost-free text messaging

    Several persons uncover text message a greater way t connect and getting back in touch. Depending upon the provider you chose, you may get free text messages, limitless messaging or a combination of the two.

    Cost-free alerts

    A single can extremely very well go for the pre-paid mobile mobile phone connection if a single demands time-to-time stability alerts. Now days, pretty much all company companies are providing the cost-free SMS service alert for pre-compensated mobiles end users. The motive is pretty uncomplicated- to persuade the customers to recharge the talk time of their mobile cellphone as they can drain it whenever. Every time you finish an outgoing call designed from your cellular, you get a service alert on your mobile phone’s display screen that displays the current stability of your pre-paid mobile card.

    As a make a difference of truth and as per pointers offered by telecom regulatory authority, each and every pre-paid card has a marked offering cost and fixed available chat time soon after deduction of taxes (services tax and people). It is also simple to continue to keep an eye on your expenditure as whatever you expend on your mobile phone’s budget, is pre-compensated and regulates it a bit.

    Previous to opting for a pre-compensated mobile telephone program, test the subsequent-

    -Who is the provider provider.-What are their providers.-What are their programs include.-What are the pricing possibilities obtainable.

    Pre-Paid Calling Advantages and dependability

    In accordance a survey carried out in the field of cellular VoIP, Asia has emerged as the fastest increasing telecommunication industry with annual growth prices in extra of thirty% across the area.

    Every single seven out 10 subscribers are employing prepaid cellular phones to make calls. Recently penetrated markets with first time mobile customers have proven a excellent raise in number of pre-paid cellular customers. According to a survey performed among the mobile cellular phone end users, 70% of the complete cellular current market is prepaid end users. This number is expected to grow by a third by the mid of this ten years. Most subscribers in the Asia Pacific area want prepaid solutions. Explanation is reason adequate- The support is speedy, quick and affordable.

    Irrespective of no matter whether prepaid is your dominant sector section, a single cannot deny that this is the fastest escalating consumer base. Actually wondered, what is fueling this expansion and how can this trajectory go on? Let’s explore the following.

    Availability of flexible programs- Availability of flexi & constantly modifying options has accelerated the steady expansion of pre-compensated cellular telephone users. Customers are pleased simply because they have no liability towards company companies and problems like protection total, crossing the credit score restrict (if bill is not paid in time) or signal up for a lengthy agreement doesn’t bother the person substantially now. Many thanks to flexi programs and the competitors they provide. For mobile people with terrible or very poor credit, prepaid phones are the greatest possibility to go cellular with.

    Nationwide coverage

    There are at minimum three most important motives that you will need to know about prepaid phone programs. Initial, no credit examine is demanded for these plans 2nd, most plans will give you limitless nights & weekends, absolutely free calling on the similar network and third, they have nationwide network protection to other cell cellphone end users. Now pre-compensated cellular cell phone people have liberty to roam about cities in the same nation without caring very much for roaming costs in many places.

    Unlimited chat time & Vast option of pre-compensated mobile cards to purchase from

    With selection of pre-paid cards and availability of most versatile plans because of to levels of competition amid provider companies to obtain every single single pre-paid consumer, has benefited the consumer in quite a few a techniques. Most of the mobile support providers are today providing limitless local minutes on the identical network, unlimited prolonged distance minutes free on certain programs and or the blend of each.

    Absolutely free text messaging

    Lots of individuals locate text message a much better way t connect and getting back again in touch. Dependent upon the provider you selected, you could get cost-free text messages, unlimited messaging or a combination of both.

    Absolutely free alerts

    A single can quite perfectly go for the pre-paid mobile cellphone connection if 1 demands time-to-time stability alerts. Now days, just about all service providers are presenting the totally free SMS service alert for pre-compensated mobiles users. The motive is incredibly very simple- to persuade the customers to recharge the chat time of their cellular cell phone as they can drain it whenever. Every time you end an outgoing contact built from your mobile, you get a provider alert on your cellular phone’s display that displays the current balance of your pre-paid cellular card.

    As a subject of actuality and as per guidelines offered by telecom regulatory authority, just about every pre-compensated card has a marked selling price tag and fixed out there discuss time right after deduction of taxes (provider tax and other individuals). It is also uncomplicated to continue to keep an eye on your expenditure as whatever you expend on your cellular phone’s price range, is pre-compensated and regulates it a bit.

    Previous to opting for a pre-paid mobile phone method, test the following-

    -Who is the service provider.-What are their solutions.-What are their programs include.-What are the pricing possibilities obtainable.

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